After the mine's closure, most of the structures invluding tunnel entrances, auxiliary structures, and offices buildings remained intact. Some of the structures are abandoned while others are revitalised and repurposed. Moreover, while the community around the mine has been shrinking, some landmarks are still standing nowadays and witness the ups and downs of the mine.

basemap-01.jpg

Mine-related structures

1

Open-pit mining area

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Peak District

Abandoned

1906

The iron ore deposit was extracted by surface mining between 1906 and 1959. The surface mining area, formed by benches dug at different levels, stretched from southeast to northwest. In 1956, the surface mining area was considerably developed with 7 to 8 benches in operation. Waste stones were piled up at the north and south dumps.

1/2

3

Underground structures

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Peak District, Pier District

Abandoned

1953

Underground mining began in 1953 where sub-level stoping was adopted. The ore body was divided into different levels following a vertical direction and sub-divided into different cube blocks at the same level. Extraction was executed from upper levels to lower levels.The tunnels were divided into 3 main levels for extraction, which were: 240ML to 192ML, 192ML to 152ML, and 152ML to 110ML. Each main level was sub-divided into separate 7-8m high working surfaces in cube form, called stopes. From there the iron ore was transferred by electric locomotive from the tunnel to the ore dressing plant for beneficiation, turning them into high grade iron ore for export to Japan.

1/2

5

Mineral preparation plant

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Pier District

Abandoned

1954

The mineral preparation plant comprised mainly of three sections which are now abandoned: the crushing section, the grinding section and the desiccating section, as well as auxiliary structures such as office, track pillars and water tank. The plant was claimed to be one of the most modern of its kind in Asia at that time. The quality as well as the quantity of the iron ore improved tremendously after the ore dressing plant was constructed, and brought the mine to its heyday. Although the authenticity of the plant has been jeopardized after the closure of the Mine, the remaining structures demonstrates a good example of joint venture between Japan and Hong Kong in the 1950s, and serves as an unique in a way that it allows people to have a glimpse of the spectacular past of the mining industry in Hong Kong.

1/2

7

Structures for auxiliary operations

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Peak District

Abandoned

1950-1960

There are many auxiliary structures which provide essential service to the mining activity, such as ventilation, power, water pumping, maintenance, lighting, and communication. Since the structures are vital part of the industrial operation, they are classified as a part of the heritage landscape.

1/4

9

Technical staff dormitory

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Peak District

Private house

?

The dormitory was built for the company’s technical staff, including foreman and explosives workers. It has two storey and has a staircase outdoor. The walls are built of brickwork and coated with grey cement slurry. Window openings has been formed at ground floor level and first floor level, all with concrete lintels which project to form sheltering hoods or canopies. Internally the rooms have plastered and painted walls and ceilings.

1/1

11

Canteen-cum-granary

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Peak District

Private house

1949

The structure comprises 3 one-storey blocks joined together as a row. It has walls of brickwork or masonry which have been rendered and painted. A series of window openings allow breezes to blow across the premises. The windows are spaced at regular intervals with projecting concrete hoods for rain protection. Gate piers built of stones can be seen on both sides of the fenced entrance. The doorways are on the south-west side of the blocks facing a courtyard paved with tiles. This structure could be one of the few miners’ quarters, furnished with bunk beds inside, for miners who belonged to the same working unit. Other said that it was a canteen-cum-granary where miners were served with free lunch provided by the Company.

1/1

2

Exterior walls of 240ML

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Peak District

Abandoned

1953

The exterior wall of 240ML is a concrete structure with a rectangular opening and two large circular openings above to house ventilation fans. With the assistance of the geologists and mining engineers from the Nittetsu Mining Company of Japan, surface mining was gradually transited to underground mining which resulted in increased output. Although the machinery was removed after the closure of the Mine in 1976, the authenticity of the exterior walls of 240ML is largely preserved as a reminder of the mining activity in the past. The relic reflects the improvement in mining technology and therefore a valuable testimony to the MOS mining history.

1/1

4

Exterior walls of 110ML

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Pier District

Abandoned

1963

Constructed in 1963, the exterior wall of 110ML is recessed into the side of the mountain in a cutting which is faced or revetted on either side by concrete retaining walls about four metres high marked with faux joint lines to resemble ashlar masonry. The portal itself is an arched opening in a concrete retaining wall with faux joint lines to represent voussoirs. The entrance of the 110ML tunnel was only 200 metres from the coast in the past and was close to the ore-dressing plant. The working process was simplified, thus saving time for conveyance, reducing transportation costs and boosting the production rate.

1/2

6

Mineral preparation plant no.2

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Ma On Bridge District

Abandoned

1960

The small crushing plant was constructed in 1960 at the Ma On Bridge District between the ore dressing plant and the open-pit area. As the ore output from the 240ML and 280ML tunnels decreased gradually, MMTC discovered that the old tailing of lump ore below 50% iron content still contained economic value after beneficiation. Therefore, a second ore dressing plant was built to crush the low quality crude ore with merely 10% iron content. The crude ore underwent the processes of crushing, screening and dry magnetic separation, before passing on to the ore dressing plant at the Pier District for final processing. The construction of the plant represented an improvement of mining technology, remaining iron content from the accumulated tailing was extracted, thus boosting the production in the 1960s

1/1

8

Branch Office of MMTC

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Peak District

Private house

1950s

In order to supervise the operation of the Mine and mining related facilities, the MMTC set up two offices in the 1950s at the Pier District and the Peak District respectively. Since the head office at the coast of Tide Cove was dismantled due to the redevelopment of the Pier District, the branch office, along with the mechanical section and the technical staff dormitory at the Peak District are the only structures left to demonstrate the daily operation of the MMTC. The building is locked up so that it is difficult to understand exactly how the office operated.

1/1

10

Clinic

Location

Status

Year of establishment

Peak District

Private house

1951

Mining is a high risk occupation. Since there was no hospital at Ma On Shan to deal with emergency cases caused by mining accidents, MMTC established two clinics in 1951, one at the Pier and one at the Peak District. They hired government registered doctors to run the clinic. Workers and their family members of the Company could enjoy medical treatment provided by the clinic, although the doctor could only deal with minor illness with backward facilities. The clinic had continued to serve the community for free until the closure of the mine, even though the number of non-workers had kept increasing.

1/2

1

露天採礦場

位置

狀態

山頂區

棄置

建設年份

1906

在1906年至1959間,礦藏以露天開採的方式挖掘。天採礦場由多層挖掘平台組成,從東南至西北延伸 。在1956年,露天採礦場已有七至八層已開採的台階。開採時採出的廢石則堆積在南北兩面的廢礦堆。

1/2

3

地下採礦設施

位置

狀態

碼頭區、山頂區

棄置

建設年份

1953

馬鞍山鐵礦的地下採礦於 1953 年開始,採礦方式為層段回採法。礦體從垂直方向劃分為多個層段,再在同一個層段以水平方向將礦體劃分為多個立方體,由上而下進行開採。 馬鞍山鐵礦的隧道主要分為三個主要的層段﹕第一段為海拔 240 米至 192 米,第二段為 192 米至 152 米,及第三段為 152 米至 110 米。每一個主要層段再劃分為多個回採工作面,高度大約為七至八米 。 在主層段和次層段之間會開設通道,原礦經由溜槽運送至較低的層段,直至到達位於 110 米的運礦隧道。原礦由電子動力火車從隧道運送至選礦廠進行提煉,在提高鐵礦純度之後出口日本。

1/2

5

選礦廠

位置

狀態

碼頭區

棄置

建設年份

1954

選礦廠包括碎礦部、磨礦部、選礦部及附屬的辦公室、礦粉堆的水泥結構、運輸軌道的架空結構及儲水池。這些遺跡現今全部棄置。選礦廠是馬鞍山礦場最重要的技術革新之一。選礦廠建立以後,鐵礦的數量和純度都提升了不少,馬鞍山鐵礦場的發展亦因此達至高峰。即使選礦廠在礦場關閉後遭受破壞,剩餘的殘骸仍可顯示馬鞍山鐵礦場在其黃金時代引入的選礦技術十分先進 。這是日本和香港在 1950 年代合資開礦的良好示範 並向一般民眾展現香港礦業的輝煌過去。

1/2

7

礦場附屬建築物

位置

狀態

山頂區

棄置

建設年份

1950-1960

地下採礦活動通常包含很多輔助建築,包括通風、電源、泵水、維修、照明、通訊等用途。這些建築對開採鐵礦來說是不可或缺,該被視為組成工業遺產的一部分。

1/4

9

技工宿舍

位置

狀態

山頂區

私人住宅

建設年份

?

在機器房的旁邊,有一幢水泥建成,兩層高的平頂建築,是採礦公司為技術人員建立的宿舍。建築物東面有一條外露的樓梯可以通往一樓。外牆由磚塊砌成,並舖上灰色水泥泥漿。地下和一樓均設有窗戶,窗戶上方設有水泥造的橫石,向前方突出成為遮蓋或罩蓋。房間內部設有髹漆的水泥牆壁和天花。

1/1

11

飯堂及糧倉

位置

狀態

山頂區

私人住宅

建設年份

1949

這幢建築物由三幢排成一列的單層式平房組成,外牆由磚塊或石塊砌成。一連串窗戶以固定的間隔安裝,並設有混礙土遮簷用作擋雨,容許前庭通風。石造門墩可見於設有欄柵的入口兩側。門口位於建築物的西南方,面向一個舖設了地磚的庭院。這幢建築物有可能是少數遺留下來的礦工工棚 ,裡面放有碌架床,供同屬一個工隊的礦工使用。 另有一個說法指這幢建築物是飯堂及糧倉,大公洋行在此處為礦工提供免費膳食。

1/1

2

海拔240米礦洞入口外牆

位置

狀態

山頂區

棄置

建設年份

1953

海拔 240 米的礦洞外牆擁有長方形的水泥結構,設有兩個圓形開口用以設置通風設備。在日鐵礦業派遣的地質學家及礦業工程師的協助下,原本的露天採礦慢慢轉變為地下採礦,鐵礦的生產量大幅提升。礦洞是為了進行地下採礦而挖掘的第一批隧道之一。即使礦洞內的機械器材在礦場關閉後已全部移走,礦洞入口的外牆架構仍保持完整,標誌著昔日採礦工業的輝煌 。此遺跡證明該時期採礦技術有著顯著進步,因此對馬鞍山的採礦歷史來說至為重要 。

1/1

4

海拔 110 米礦洞外牆及附屬建築

位置

狀態

碼頭區

棄置

建設年份

1963

海拔 110 米礦洞入口的外牆竣工於一九六三年,該入口建於山邊一個凹陷處,兩邊各有一堵向前方延伸、大約四米高的瓦礫磚牆,磚牆以仿造的接連線模仿混凝土塊砌圬工 (ashlar masonry)。入口為一個以混凝土磚砌成的拱形牆垣,並以仿造的接連線描繪拱石。礦洞入口昔日離海岸只有二百米,非常接近選礦廠 ,因此使採礦工序變得簡單,省卻不少運輸時間,繼而減省運輸成本和提高生產效率。

1/2

6

選礦二廠

位置

狀態

馬鞍橋區

棄置

建設年份

1960

選礦二廠在 1960 年建於馬鞍橋區,座落在露天採礦場和選礦廠之間。隨著海拔 240 米和 280 米礦洞內的礦藏逐漸耗盡,大公洋行發現在露天開採期間棄置的廢礦 (含鐵量在 50% 以下) 在經過精煉之後,仍然有經濟價值。因此,大公洋行決定建造第二座選礦廠精煉含鐵量低於 10% 的廢礦。在送往碼頭區的選礦廠進行最後加工之前,原礦將會經歷打碎、篩選和乾選的過程。選礦二廠的建立代表著採礦技術的進步,廢礦堆中剩餘的鐵質得以提煉出來,增加 1960 年代的鐵礦產量。

1/1

8

大公洋行分部辦公室

位置

狀態

山頂區

私人住宅

建設年份

1950s

為了監督礦山及開採設施的運作,大公洋行在一九五零年代,分別在碼頭區和山頂區設立了兩間辦公室。位於沙田海海邊的主辦公室已因碼頭區重新發展而被拆卸,因此山頂區的分部辦公室、機器房及技工宿舍是唯一可以窺見昔日礦場如何運作的建築群。由於建築物上了鎖,因此很難得知其時的辦公室如何運作。

1/1

10

診所

位置

狀態

山頂區

私人住宅

建設年份

1951

採礦是一項高危工作,由於馬鞍山並未設有醫院處理由採礦意外造成的緊急醫療事故,大公洋行在一九五一年設立了兩間診所,一間在碼頭區,一間在山頂區。他們聘請註冊醫生在診所看診。雖然醫生只能使用落後的設備處理小病小痛,但是礦工和他們的家眷可以享受診所提供的醫療服務。 礦場關閉之後,即使非員工成員的數目持續上升,診所仍然為礦村的社群提供醫療服務。

1/2

Community related structures

12

平安橋的牌匾

位置

狀態

山頂區

牌匾

建設年份

1964

平安橋連接採礦地區和住宅區,最初由蓋上木板的鐵軌組成。1964 年,大公洋行出資重建平安橋,並由礦場秘書兼人事科科長余嘉華先生題字,取名「平安橋」。平安橋的建造提升了當地居民的生活水平,而大公洋行的義舉也展現了當時馬鞍山上很常見的互助精神 。

1/2

14

聖若瑟教堂建築群

位置

狀態

山頂區

棄置

建設年份

1954

跟其他建築比起來,馬鞍山礦場的宗教建築群在歷史和建築學上均有著非比尋常的意義。在歷史層面,聖若瑟小堂的建立見證了國共內戰後天主教在香港的積極宗教活動。國共內戰結束後,中國禁止外國傳教士在當地傳教,傳教士轉而南下至香港,在新界成立多間聖堂或教堂以傳揚福音,而馬鞍山的聖若瑟小堂便是其中之一 。儘管整個教堂建築群沒有華麗的裝飾,實用的建築物設計和恰到好處的裝飾在在顯示了他們如何運用本地資源去修建這幢建築。在香港這種建築風格非常罕有 。

1/8

16

信義會恩光堂建築群

位置

狀態

山頂區

鞍山探索館

建設年份

1952

恩光堂的建立見證了基督教在一九五零年代的傳教歷史。國共內戰之後,基督教傳教士被迫離開中國內地,轉而到別的地方去傳教。那段時期,美國信義會教會在豫中的差會被指派前往馬鞍山,促進了基督教在香港的發展。基督教信義會和天主教方濟會這兩個宗教組織在社區發展中發揮了關鍵作用。 他們提供了社會、教育和醫療援助,和心靈上的支持。教堂亦為鄰里提供主要聚會場所。作為基督教香港信義會修復計劃的一部分,建築群中的三間舊建築已重新修復完畢,自二零一五年開始轉變為以宣揚馬鞍山鐵礦歷史及生態旅遊為主的營地。

1/5

18

馬鞍山村老人會

位置

狀態

山頂區

聚會場所

建設年份

1980s

礦場結束後,聖若瑟小學校的張渤老師建立老人會,為因礦場結業而失業、又不願離開馬鞍山的年老礦工提供各種援助。在馬鞍山村居民的要求下,老人會在1986年成立了一個糧油站,為他們提供米飯和火水等日常用品。當時的糧油站現在成為了老人會的聚會場所。

1/2

13

前民居及士多

位置

狀態

山頂區

私人住宅

建設年份

?

礦工家庭生活艱苦,當家中的男性出去開礦時,家中的女性和小孩不是在田裡工作,便是開設一間小店做生意。在馬鞍山,在屋子裡開設小舖頭或食店以幫補家計是很常見的一件事。這幢前士多是展示本地經濟圈如何建立的一個好例子。

1/2

15

人行橋

位置

狀態

山頂區

棄置

建設年份

1963

聖若瑟小學校的學生曾經使用這條人行橋上學。由於橋下的山澗在雨天會泛濫,人行橋的興建為當地居民提供了一個安全到達教堂的方法。

1/2

17

信義新村

位置

狀態

碼頭區

私人住宅

建設年份

1961

馬鞍山資源缺乏,房屋材料主要是碎石、木板和鐵皮 ,因此在惡劣天氣之下,很容易受到破壞。有見及此,於一九六零年代建成的信義新村便用於安置在暴風雨中失去家所的基督徒礦工家庭。

1/1

12

Ping On Bridge tablet

Location

Status

Year of establistment

Peak District

Tablet

1964

Ping On Bridge was the connection between the mining area and the residential area. At the beginning it was constructed by rail tracks covered with wood planks. MMTC paid for the reconstruction of the bridge in 1964. The tablet with the name of the bridge on it was written by Mr. Yu Ka Wah (who was a former secretary and Chief of the Human Resource Section of the Company), wishing safety for the miners. The bridge demonstrates the spirit of mutual support and improving the quality of life of the local residents.

1/2

14

St. Joseph's Chapel compound

Location

Status

Year of establistment

Peak District

Abandoned

1954

The religious compound among the other structures of the Ma On Shan mining settlement has very important meaning in terms of history and architecture. Historically, the construction of the St. Joseph’s Church compound witnessed the active involvement of the Catholic Church in Hong Kong after the Chinese Civil War. The missionaries were forbidden to preach their faith in China after the Civil War, so they moved south to Hong Kong and erected many chapels or churches in the New Territories to preach the gospel, and St. Joseph’s Church was one of those. Although the church compound was not excessively decorated, the practical design of the buildings alongside with befitting decorations showed how construction was done with local resources. Architectural style of this kind is rarely found in Hong Kong.

1/8

16

Lutheran Yan Kwong Church compound

Location

Status

Year of establistment

Peak District

Grace Youth Camp

1952

The construction of the Lutheran Yan Kwong Church witnessed the history of the Christian missionary in the 1950s. Christian missionary left China after the Chinese Civil War and began to preach elsewhere. Some of them headed south to Hong Kong to continue their mission. The missionary of American Lutheran Mission at Yuzhong was appointed to station at Ma On Shan during that period, enhancing the development of Christianity in Hong Kong. The church developed into another centre of religion, education and social activities apart from the St. Joseph’s Church. . The church compound served as an important facility for social activities, becoming an inseparable part of the Ma On Shan Iron Mine. As part of the revitalization project of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hong Kong, three old structures of the complex, including the church, have been refurbished and operated as a site to promote mining history and eco-tourism of MOS since 2015.

1/5

18

Ma On Shan Village Old People's Association

Location

Status

Year of establistment

Peak District

Meeting place

1980s

The Old People’s Association was formed by the St. Joseph’s Primary School teacher Mr. Zhang, Bo after the closure of the Mine, to provide welfare to ex-miners still living in the village. A supply station was set up in 1986 at the request of local residents to provide daily necessities such as rice and kerosene. The then supply station now become the gathering venue of the Association.

1/2

13

Former house cum grocery store

Location

Status

Year of establistment

Peak District

Private house

?

Local residents who worked as miners lived a hard life with their families. In order to earn more money to feed the family, women and children worked in the field or in shops run by their own when men were mining. It was very common for the local residents to turn part of their house into a shop or an eatery to earn extra income. The former grocery store was a good example to demonstrate the making of a local economy.

1/2

15

Footbridge

Location

Status

Year of establistment

Peak District

Abandoned

1963

Students of the St. Joseph’s Primary School used to go to school via this footbridge. The bridge provides easier access to the church as the stream under the footbridge is subject to flooding in rainy days.

1/2

17

Shun Yee San Tsuen

Location

Status

Year of establistment

Pier District

Private house

1961

As resources were scarce at MOS, building materials applied to local housing were mostly rubbles, planks and metal-sheets, hence easily destroyed under bad weather condition, such as heavy rainstorm and typhoon. Therefore Shun Yee San Tsuen (literally “Lutheran New Village”) was constructed in the 1960s to rehouse miners’ families who had been made homeless by heavy rainstorms.

1/1